Improvement of preventive fire safety at a tank farm

Tank farms are used for the storage of extremely flammable and explosive substances; Consequently, preventive fireplace safety is of main importance. When rehabilitation of such a tank farm is deliberate, contractors often advocate intensive – and thus expensive – measures. A fire-protection resolution developed by TÜV SÜD demonstrates that an equal stage of security may also be reached with a far more cost-effective resolution. A central role in harm limitation is performed by early fireplace detection using thermographic cameras.
Numerous tank farms throughout Germany store petrol, diesel, kerosene or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In contact with air, these extremely flammable substances can kind explosive mixtures. Given this, tank farms require particular measures in the area of preventive fireplace safety. If rehabilitation of fire-protection techniques becomes essential at an older tank farm, far-reaching measures ought to be taken, not solely by the use of precaution but additionally to exclude potential legal responsibility dangers. And but not each measure that’s technologically feasible can be essential in case of a rehabilitation, as can be seen from the example of a tank farm in Bavaria, Germany.
The tank farm is located at a basin of a river port in Bavaria. The part of the tank farm in need of rehabilitation covers 24 tanks with a storage volume of between 600 and a pair of,000 cubic metres. The tank farm is used for intermediate storage of extremely flammable fluids with flame points of < 21 levels Celsius, as outlined within the German hazardous substances laws. In fireplace inspections and on-site inspections after incidents, the inspectors had identified major non-conformities within the fire-extinguishing system. To substitute เครื่องมือวัดความดัน outdated and non-conforming system, an engineering agency submitted an in depth list of measures. These measures totally glad all regulatory requirements but represented a very cost-intensive solution, requiring a full rehabilitation utilizing traditional extinguishing methods. For the tank-farm operating company, the prices of implementing these measures would have added as much as 1.7 million euros.
In fire protection, the challenge lies in connecting well-founded technological information and authorized know-how. In follow this means harmonising cheap engineering providers and authorized applications to obtain a cohesive, economically feasible and simply implemented fire-protection concept.
Alternative answer developed by TÜV SÜD
At the operating company’s request, TÜV SÜD’s third-party experts validated the individual measures and the cost-effectiveness of the rehabilitation plan submitted by the engineering firm. Owing to the big number of deficiencies identified within the tank farm, the specialists first prepared a list of priorities with the measures necessary to fulfil the security requirements and achieve the protection objectives. They arrived at the conclusion that not all of the proposed measures really wanted to be carried out. Starting from this finding, they then drew up an alternate fire-protection concept that might in the end scale back the projected prices by one third.
TÜV SÜD’s rehabilitation plan included the fire-protection infrastructure already in place on the tank farm, such as a non-automatic foam extinguishing system with a total foaming-agent provide of 10,500 litres distributed throughout two tanks, two submerged pumps within the port basin with a pump capability of a hundred and eighty m3 per hour to ensure water provide for fireplace fighting and sprinkling the shells and the roofs of the tanks, manual triggering of the shut-off valves and a transformer station powered by the regional vitality provider. The feed-in of emergency energy was effected by the native skilled hearth department.
The engineering firm, by contrast, had planned to exchange the complete fire-extinguishing system. They needed to install three mobile extinguishing-agent distribution systems in container form for remote managed sprinkling and foaming of the tanks. This answer would have required the installation of recent electrical, operational and control techniques in addition to new pipe routes connecting the extinguishing-agent distribution techniques with the fire-fighting techniques within the tank fields. The prices for the three extinguishing-agent distribution techniques in container form alone would have added as a lot as around 1.2 million euros.
Incipient fire combating situation with intact power supply and free entry to the tank farm.
Implementation of three packages of measures
The different rehabilitation concept developed by TÜV SÜD, which additionally met the necessities of the Bavarian Building Code (BayBo [1]), supplied for three essential packages of measures to attain the safety and safety objectives.
First, installation of a completely automatic infrared measuring system made by DIAS Infrared to make sure early hearth detection. The system’s seven thermographic cameras are put in on pan-tilt units. They detect changes in temperature on the surfaces of the tanks made of different materials and situated in the area monitored by the cameras, before these changes in temperature could cause a hearth. As the cameras can transfer, the areas to be monitored could be divided into sectors. The cameras then strategy these sectors cyclically in sequence. To shield the cameras in opposition to exterior influences, they are housed in ventilated and heated weatherproof enclosures (Fig. 1). Monitoring focuses primarily on the protection devices of the tanks, pumps and motors and on the filling techniques on the tank-farm premises. The management room at the tank farm and the native skilled fireplace department are notified immediately as quickly because the temperature exceeds a certain limit. The measure bundle additionally contains distant triggering of the extinguishing-agent provide from the control centre and automation of the security devices.
Incipient fireplace preventing scenario with energy loss the place access to the tank farm is blocked by a cargo train.
In addition, it covers rehabilitation of the sprinkler and foam-extinguisher system. In this context, TÜV SÜD’s solution supplied for substitute of the leaking and corroded pipe sections with new pipes and for installation of three fastened foam-extinguishing methods within the type of foam monitors to battle incipient fires directly. In addition, a cellular foam monitor was deliberate as a backup.
A third focus space concerns safeguarding the power provide required for early fireplace detection and fireplace fighting. According to the regional energy supplier, energy outages could have a length of no much less than 30 minutes. Given this, the tank-farm wanted an impartial power supply system that was ready to make sure power provide for no much less than 2 hours. The consultants relied on battery buffering and a diesel operated emergency power unit to resolve this problem.
Fire protection must guarantee achievement of the safety goals
Protection objectives and equal safety stage reached
The fire-protection solution offered by TÜV SÜD was agreed with both the tank farm’s working firm, the municipal authority and the professional hearth department. The three measure packages also complied with the required safety objectives and the protection levels. And in the end, they proved far cheaper than the answer initially proposed. Since rehabilitation of the tank farm, early fire detection along side improved fire-protection infrastructure has become a central a part of injury limitation. Since the rehabilitation concept was applied, the tank-farm’s working firm – working with the professional hearth division – has been in a place to effectively counteract all possible eventualities of incipient hearth successfully and at an early stage, even in cases of power loss or when entry to the tank farm is blocked (see Figures 2 and 3).
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Classification beneath the Bavarian Building Code (Bayerische Bauordnung, BayBo)
Tank farms are installations of a particular sort and use (special structures). Their operation includes the dealing with and storing of extremely explosive or flammable substances. Protection measures and safety precautions thus not solely fall inside the operating company’s duty however are also a matter of public curiosity. Given this, the BayBO stipulates requirements together with material necessities which, as “General clauses of fireside protection”, assist to help the safety aims outlined in Article 12. However, based on article 3 (1) deviations from the technical building regulations are attainable if an alternative answer is discovered that’s equal when it comes to fulfilling the overall necessities in paragraph 1. In other words, the necessities laid down within the Building Code are deemed complied with if the widely recognised rules of structure and know-how are fulfilled.

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