Oil and gas move meter

For years, people concerned within the oil and gas industry have been innovating and creating ways to get accurate measurements. From extraction to supply of these uncooked materials, everybody within the business has invested a substantial quantity of effort to obtain probably the most accurate measurements.
As a outcome, scientists and engineers have been working exhausting to search out new methods and techniques to make more environment friendly metrology methods. Thanks to their onerous work, the creation of different move meters was potential and because of this, the oil and gasoline business is still strong right now.
These circulate meters are utilized by business (especially fuel and oil) to calculate the mass circulate or quantity move of fluids. Such functions define the capacity and type of move meters. Gases, liquids and fluids are measured based mostly on mass circulate and quantity move.
From corrosive subsea environments, offshore production platforms, onshore oil fields or refineries, we’ve the move expertise to sort out these powerful jobs. Difficult oil and gasoline move metering challenges similar to high pressures, pulsating flows, corrosive media and harsh environments are our day by day business. We work with lots of our upstream and downstream customers to develop custom circulate solutions for their toughest challenges, handling essentially the most demanding chemical substances of their most remote and dangerous areas. We work with you to enhance process efficiency, cut back expensive manufacturing downtime, and establish real-time monitoring and management.
Table of Contents

Where and how are oil and gasoline formed?

Ultrasonic move meter

Coriolis flow meter

Electromagnetic flowmeter

Vortex move meter

Turbine circulate meter

Thermal flow meter

Differential move meter

Positive displacement flow meter

Oil and gasoline circulate meter choice

Where and how are oil and fuel formed?

Before discussing the different flow meters commonly used in the oil and gas trade, you will need to first perceive the process of how the business collects raw materials.
Both of these uncooked materials exist in numerous geological sources. For the most half, pure fuel and oil fields exist on sedimentary rocks corresponding to sandstone and limestone. The main reason for this is that these materials transfer simply by way of the rock, making them simpler to build up. The capability of the found reservoirs can be determined by their porosity, whereas the production capacity is proportional to their permeability.
To begin the move, they drill inside these rocks, which can make the fluid simpler to extract. To provoke, enhance or maintain flow, water is pumped into the rocks, which are often positioned underground. High pressure water is pumped into these rocks, which can improve the move rate and enhance fluid extraction. A circulate meter known as an Apure electromagnetic circulate meter is used to accurately measure the quantity of water pumped inside the rock.
However, in some instances, drilling and pumping is not enough to acquire this material. Most of the oil or fuel found in impermeable rocks can’t be formed in the typical means. These supplies are referred to as “unconventional hydrocarbons,” they usually embody shale oil, coalbed methane and shale fuel. Because of the very low permeability of the rocks, accumulation must be stimulated to begin the circulate and enable the extraction process. To do that, a technique called “hydraulic fracturing” is required.
In hydraulic fracturing, a mix of sand and water is pumped into the rock. Due to the excessive strain, small cracks (fractures) are created, which is ready to enable the material to move freely inside the foundation. Hydraulic fracturing is completed by causing these fractures to open to permit the material to move, which is the place the sand comes in; opening these fractures, leading to high permeability. To accurately measure the blending of fracturing fluid and components in the mixture, Apure’s electromagnetic circulate meters are used.
Now that we have defined an summary of how the oil and fuel industry gets these uncooked supplies, the subsequent step is to know how they’re measured using different varieties of metering systems.
Ultrasonic circulate meter

Ultrasonic flow meters measure the rate of a fluid flowing through a pipe by utilizing sound waves. Once the rate of the fluid slowly will increase, a linear change in its frequency turns into apparent.
Ultrasonic circulate meters can be utilized to measure the flow price of fluids inside and outside of a pipe; the inline design installs the meter inside the pipe, while the clamp-on mannequin makes use of a transducer to measure velocity. However, clamp-on fashions are much less accurate than inline fashions. As a end result, they are solely used for spot checks to acquire quick measurement results.
Ultrasonic flowmeters and other flowmeters designed for crude oil can be used to measure 20-inch pipes inline. In addition, the clamp-on design is appropriate for many various things and is durable. Not to mention, it requires very little maintenance.
Coriolis move meter

The expertise used in Coriolis circulate meters just isn’t the latest in measuring natural substances within the oil and fuel business. The first industrial patents for Coriolis move meters date again to the Nineteen Fifties. However, it was not until 1970 that the application of this know-how on this field began. Until now, nothing has modified, regardless of enhancements to the meters for extra correct measurements.
One of the original designs of the move meter was that it had a single thin-walled tube. It was very correct; nonetheless, the practicality of the model was the first issue as a outcome of its vibration problem. To solve this drawback, the design was modified to a two-tube design instead of one.
Despite going via different designs, the primary precept of Coriolis circulate meters by no means changed. As material flows through them, inertia is created by way of the oscillating tube and the tube twists. The number of twists is proportional to the mass move price. This is then measured by the flowmeter transmitter and sensor to produce a linear circulate signal.
There are several benefits to utilizing a Coriolis flow meter. One of them is that it is extremely correct. These move meters are more generally used to measure numerous petroleum merchandise similar to crude oil and pure fuel. The major level of the flow meter is that it primarily measures mass flow somewhat than volume. It is greatest suited to measuring petroleum products as a result of the primary concern in measuring these merchandise is heat rather than quantity.
Typically, this type of move meter is appropriate for pipes with diameters of 1 to four inches. Today, nevertheless, bigger models are extra available than ever earlier than. The solely downside of the Coriolis flowmeter could also be that it’s costlier than different types of metering techniques. This is price it as a end result of it is less expensive to take care of than different circulate meters.
Electromagnetic flowmeter

Electromagnetic move meter is based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction principle of manufacturing a flowmeter to measure conductive liquids, from its measurement precept may be seen in its limitations: can not measure steam and fuel, the measured medium have to be conductive, and the conductivity cannot be less than 5μs/cm. Its benefit is that it can measure dirty, viscous and corrosive fluids, similar to pulp, slurry, sewage, etc.. No stress loss caused by flow detection, large flow range, big selection of caliber, for giant diameter pipeline can be utilized insertion kind electromagnetic flowmeter.
Electromagnetic flowmeter electrode and lining are in direct contact with the measured medium, so for the measured medium corrosive and working temperature to determine on the suitable electrode and lining supplies.
Vortex circulate meter

One of the most versatile circulate meters, the vortex circulate meter, can simply measure the flow of gases, liquids, and steam.
In years past, vortex flowmeters lacked the necessary approvals for use in trade. However, in 2007, the American Petroleum Institute permitted a draft normal for the use of this flowmeter. Since that time, a quantity of companies within the trade have been actively working with API to further develop the standard and its approval.
The commonplace is applicable to liquid, vapor and gasoline flows and was expanded for additional use in 2010. Although there’s an unsure future, the design is evident for the presence of gases and liquids. In current years, vortex flowmeters have had a limited impact on the market, but the desire for future companies is steadily increasing. However, because of other opponents such as ultrasonic, differential strain and turbine circulate meters, it has had little impression on the gas trade delivery market.
Turbine flow meter

Turbine circulate meters use a mechanical rotor which is attached to a shaft inside a pipe. It is then used to measure the amount of the gas, fluid or steam passing through the pipe. As the substance passes through the pipe, the rotor rotates at its velocity, relying on the pace at which the substance is passing through the pipe. The rotational velocity ensuing from the rotation of the rotor is set by way of a sensor or different mechanical method.
Typically, magnetism is used to allow the sensor to take readings from the rotor, with the magnet situated on the skin of the pipe. Through using a signal, the sensor and transmitter determine the amount of material flowing within the pipe.
Turbine circulate meters are very cheap by means of pricing. In addition, they offer more accurate results when the substance being measured is a fuel or any other material that is freed from debris at low move charges.
One disadvantage of using a turbine flowmeter is that it does not adapt nicely to altering flow charges, because the mechanical elements can wear heavily and need to be replaced immediately. In addition, turbine meters work finest when measuring the mass of a fuel with unknown characteristics.
In addition to its makes use of, it’s generally used as a billing meter to measure gas or water in business, industrial and residential buildings. In this respect, nonetheless, it competes with volumetric circulate meters. The latter is extra appropriate for measuring pipes of 1.5 to 10 inches in measurement, whereas the turbine flow meter is greatest suited for pipes of 10 inches or extra in measurement.
Thermal flow meter

In its primary sense, a thermal move meter measures the rate at which heat dissipates as it’s injected immediately right into a gasoline stream. In most circumstances, thermal move meters are used solely to measure gases.
The heat dissipation depends on the composition and temperature of the fuel. When the composition or temperature is minimized or this stage of accuracy is inside acceptable parameters, the thermal flowmeter is your best option.
Differential circulate meter

Like its distant relative, the ultrasonic flow meter, it additionally measures the move by way of the pipe. It differs from different flowmeters in that it uses Bernoulli’s equation. In addition, differential move meters use constriction to sluggish the flow and strain of fabric within the pipe.
As the flow strain slowly increases, the magnitude of the strain drop will increase proportionally. The information from this event is transmitted over completely different sets of pressure readings. Using this info, it’s attainable to calculate the strain differential to measure the volumetric flow price.
Differential circulate meters are usually low-cost. And there are additionally different variations for different substances to make correct measurements for every fluid. However, gases are a special case as a outcome of to have the ability to get accurate readings for a selected gasoline, differential circulate meters ought to be used in mixture with other sensors for various elements corresponding to temperature, pressure, fuel composition and gas density.
Although it is a wonderful flowmeter in its own proper, industry prefers different types of metering methods. This is especially because of its inaccuracy when it comes to different components similar to temperature, stress, and so on. In addition, in order to get hold of the most correct gas measurements, it must be utilized in combination with other sensors or a special model of differential stress flowmeter altogether. Due to the above components, it’s tough to acquire accurate readings. This is principally the explanation why the oil and gasoline business prefers other types of metering, especially when dealing with gases.
Positive displacement flow meter

There are several varieties of optimistic displacement circulate meters: oval gear, piston, rotary, diaphragm, chapter-actuated disc and screw.
Volumetric move meters can be utilized for a variety of things involving commercial, industrial and residential purposes. They are most commonly used to measure fuel flow. However, turbine flowmeters compete with volumetric flowmeters in this regard. One of its advantages over turbine flowmeters is that it excels at dealing with a steady circulate in pipes 10 inches in diameter or smaller.
Both diaphragm and rotary volumetric flowmeters are typically used to measure gas move. The latter is most well-liked over opponents similar to Coriolis flowmeters, primarily because volumetric flowmeters do not have the trade approvals required for area functions.
Oil and gasoline flow meter choice

The major components to assume about in choosing a suitable flowmeter embody: fluid traits, flowmeter traits necessities, set up circumstances, environmental conditions, and price.
In addition, the number of move meters can’t totally pursue excessive efficiency and high precision, which not solely increases the acquisition value, but also will increase the worth of spare elements. It is also essential to think about the calibration and upkeep of circulate meters.
Accurate measurement and regulation of fluid circulate is the basis for making certain the security of petrochemical production process, improving product high quality and reducing power consumption. Due to the complexity and diversity of circulate measurement media, there is not any universal type of flowmeter, no flowmeter could be utilized to any totally different conditions of all kinds of media. Each kind of flowmeter has its benefits and limitations of measurement, completely different principles, totally different buildings, different features of the flowmeter of their respective applicable scope play a job. Therefore, the number of flowmeter must observe the usual specifications and selection ideas on the identical time comprehensive consideration of various factors affecting circulate measurement.
Extended reading:
Solvent move meter

Sewage flowmeter

Ultrasonic move meter working precept

Liquid circulate meter
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For years, people concerned within the oil and gasoline business have been innovating and creating methods to get accurate measurements. From extraction to delivery of those raw supplies, everyone in the business has invested a substantial quantity of effort to acquire essentially the most correct measurements.
As a result, scientists and engineers have been working hard to seek out new methods and techniques to make extra environment friendly metrology methods. Thanks to their onerous work, the creation of various move meters was potential and because of this, the oil and gas business continues to be sturdy today.
These flow meters are utilized by business (especially fuel and oil) to calculate the mass circulate or quantity flow of fluids. Such functions define the capability and kind of move meters. Gases, liquids and fluids are measured based mostly on mass flow and quantity move.
From corrosive subsea environments, offshore production platforms, onshore oil fields or refineries, we have the move expertise to deal with these powerful jobs. Difficult oil and fuel circulate metering challenges such as high pressures, pulsating flows, corrosive media and harsh environments are our daily business. We work with many of our upstream and downstream prospects to develop customized flow options for their toughest challenges, handling probably the most demanding chemical substances of their most distant and hazardous areas. We work with you to improve process effectivity, scale back pricey production downtime, and set up real-time monitoring and management.
Table of Contents

Where and how are oil and gasoline formed?

Ultrasonic circulate meter

Coriolis circulate meter

Electromagnetic flowmeter

Vortex flow meter

Turbine move meter

Thermal move meter

Differential flow meter

Positive displacement flow meter

Oil and gas move meter choice

Where and the way are oil and gas formed?

Before discussing the different circulate meters commonly used in the oil and fuel industry, it is important to first understand the process of how the trade collects raw supplies.
Both of those uncooked supplies exist in numerous geological sources. For essentially the most part, natural fuel and oil fields exist on sedimentary rocks corresponding to sandstone and limestone. The main cause for that is that these supplies transfer easily by way of the rock, making them simpler to build up. The capability of the found reservoirs may be determined by their porosity, while the production capacity is proportional to their permeability.
To start the move, they drill inside these rocks, which can make the fluid simpler to extract. To initiate, improve or sustain circulate, water is pumped into the rocks, which are usually positioned underground. High pressure water is pumped into these rocks, which can improve the move fee and enhance fluid extraction. A flow meter referred to as an Apure electromagnetic flow meter is used to precisely measure the quantity of water pumped inside the rock.
However, in some cases, drilling and pumping is not adequate to acquire this materials. Most of the oil or gasoline found in impermeable rocks can’t be formed in the standard way. These materials are known as “unconventional hydrocarbons,” they usually embody shale oil, coalbed methane and shale gasoline. Because of the very low permeability of the rocks, accumulation should be stimulated to begin the flow and allow the extraction process. To do this, a method referred to as “hydraulic fracturing” is required.
In hydraulic fracturing, a combination of sand and water is pumped into the rock. Due to the high pressure, small cracks (fractures) are created, which is in a position to permit the material to move freely inside the muse. Hydraulic fracturing is completed by causing these fractures to open to allow the fabric to maneuver, which is where the sand comes in; opening these fractures, leading to excessive permeability. To precisely measure the mixing of fracturing fluid and components within the mixture, Apure’s electromagnetic flow meters are used.
Now that we have defined an outline of how the oil and gasoline business gets these raw materials, the following step is to know how they are measured using several varieties of metering systems.
Ultrasonic flow meter

Ultrasonic flow meters measure the speed of a fluid flowing through a pipe by using sound waves. Once the speed of the fluid slowly will increase, a linear change in its frequency turns into apparent.
Ultrasonic circulate meters can be used to measure the move price of fluids inside and out of doors of a pipe; the inline design installs the meter inside the pipe, while the clamp-on mannequin uses a transducer to measure velocity. However, clamp-on models are much less accurate than inline models. As a outcome, they are only used for spot checks to obtain instant measurement results.
Ultrasonic flowmeters and different flowmeters designed for crude oil can be utilized to measure 20-inch pipes inline. In addition, the clamp-on design is appropriate for many various things and is sturdy. Not to mention, it requires little or no maintenance.
Coriolis move meter

The expertise used in Coriolis move meters just isn’t the latest in measuring natural substances in the oil and gas business. The first industrial patents for Coriolis move meters date again to the Nineteen Fifties. However, it was not until 1970 that the application of this know-how on this area started. Until now, nothing has modified, regardless of improvements to the meters for extra accurate measurements.
One of the original designs of the move meter was that it had a single thin-walled tube. It was very correct; nevertheless, the practicality of the model was the first problem as a outcome of its vibration drawback. To clear up this problem, the design was modified to a two-tube design instead of one.
Despite going through completely different designs, the principle principle of Coriolis move meters never changed. As digital pressure gauge flows by way of them, inertia is created via the oscillating tube and the tube twists. The number of twists is proportional to the mass circulate rate. This is then measured by the flowmeter transmitter and sensor to provide a linear move sign.
There are several advantages to using a Coriolis circulate meter. One of them is that it is very accurate. These move meters are more commonly used to measure numerous petroleum merchandise corresponding to crude oil and natural fuel. The main level of the move meter is that it primarily measures mass move rather than volume. It is finest fitted to measuring petroleum products because the main concern in measuring these merchandise is warmth rather than volume.
Typically, this type of circulate meter is appropriate for pipes with diameters of 1 to 4 inches. Today, nonetheless, bigger models are extra readily available than ever before. The only downside of the Coriolis flowmeter may be that it is costlier than different forms of metering systems. This is value it as a result of it’s cheaper to maintain than other move meters.
Electromagnetic flowmeter

Electromagnetic move meter is predicated on Faraday’s legislation of electromagnetic induction principle of manufacturing a flowmeter to measure conductive liquids, from its measurement principle may be seen in its limitations: can’t measure steam and fuel, the measured medium have to be conductive, and the conductivity can’t be lower than 5μs/cm. Its advantage is that it may possibly measure soiled, viscous and corrosive fluids, similar to pulp, slurry, sewage, and so on.. No pressure loss brought on by move detection, massive flow vary, wide selection of caliber, for giant diameter pipeline can be used insertion type electromagnetic flowmeter.
Electromagnetic flowmeter electrode and lining are in direct contact with the measured medium, so for the measured medium corrosive and operating temperature to determine on the appropriate electrode and lining supplies.
Vortex circulate meter

One of the most versatile move meters, the vortex circulate meter, can easily measure the move of gases, liquids, and steam.
In years previous, vortex flowmeters lacked the required approvals to be used in business. However, in 2007, the American Petroleum Institute approved a draft normal for the use of this flowmeter. Since that time, several firms within the industry have been actively working with API to further develop the standard and its approval.
The normal is applicable to liquid, vapor and gasoline flows and was expanded for additional use in 2010. Although there is an unsure future, the design is clear for the presence of gases and liquids. In latest years, vortex flowmeters have had a restricted impression in the marketplace, but the preference for future companies is steadily growing. However, as a outcome of other opponents corresponding to ultrasonic, differential strain and turbine move meters, it has had little influence on the gas commerce supply market.
Turbine circulate meter

Turbine move meters use a mechanical rotor which is connected to a shaft inside a pipe. It is then used to measure the amount of the gas, fluid or steam passing via the pipe. As the substance passes through the pipe, the rotor rotates at its velocity, relying on the speed at which the substance is passing through the pipe. The rotational speed ensuing from the rotation of the rotor is decided by means of a sensor or other mechanical method.
Typically, magnetism is used to allow the sensor to take readings from the rotor, with the magnet situated on the skin of the pipe. Through using a sign, the sensor and transmitter decide the volume of material flowing in the pipe.
Turbine move meters are very inexpensive when it comes to pricing. In addition, they offer more accurate outcomes when the substance being measured is a gasoline or another material that is freed from particles at low circulate charges.
One disadvantage of using a turbine flowmeter is that it doesn’t adapt nicely to altering circulate rates, because the mechanical components can put on closely and need to be changed instantly. In addition, turbine meters work best when measuring the mass of a gas with unknown characteristics.
In addition to its uses, it’s generally used as a billing meter to measure gasoline or water in business, industrial and residential buildings. In this respect, however, it competes with volumetric move meters. The latter is extra appropriate for measuring pipes of 1.5 to 10 inches in size, while the turbine flow meter is greatest fitted to pipes of 10 inches or extra in measurement.
Thermal circulate meter

In its primary sense, a thermal move meter measures the rate at which heat dissipates as it is injected immediately right into a gas stream. In most cases, thermal move meters are used completely to measure gases.
The warmth dissipation is determined by the composition and temperature of the fuel. When the composition or temperature is minimized or this level of accuracy is within acceptable parameters, the thermal flowmeter is your best option.
Differential flow meter

Like its distant relative, the ultrasonic move meter, it also measures the flow by way of the pipe. It differs from other flowmeters in that it makes use of Bernoulli’s equation. In addition, differential move meters use constriction to slow the circulate and stress of material within the pipe.
As the circulate stress slowly will increase, the magnitude of the stress drop will increase proportionally. The information from this event is transmitted over completely different sets of stress readings. Using this info, it is potential to calculate the strain differential to measure the volumetric circulate rate.
Differential circulate meters are normally low-cost. And there are also different variations for various substances to make accurate measurements for every fluid. However, gases are a special case as a end result of so as to get accurate readings for a selected fuel, differential move meters must be used in combination with different sensors for various factors similar to temperature, stress, gas composition and gasoline density.
Although it is a wonderful flowmeter in its personal proper, trade prefers other forms of metering methods. This is mainly as a result of its inaccuracy in phrases of different factors corresponding to temperature, pressure, and so on. In addition, so as to get hold of probably the most correct gas measurements, it must be used in mixture with other sensors or a unique version of differential stress flowmeter altogether. Due to the above elements, it’s tough to obtain accurate readings. This is mainly the rationale why the oil and fuel industry prefers other types of metering, particularly when dealing with gases.
Positive displacement circulate meter

There are several types of optimistic displacement flow meters: oval gear, piston, rotary, diaphragm, chapter-actuated disc and screw.
Volumetric move meters can be utilized for a selection of issues involving business, industrial and residential purposes. They are most commonly used to measure fuel flow. However, turbine flowmeters compete with volumetric flowmeters in this regard. One of its benefits over turbine flowmeters is that it excels at dealing with a gentle flow in pipes 10 inches in diameter or smaller.
Both diaphragm and rotary volumetric flowmeters are sometimes used to measure gasoline flow. The latter is most popular over opponents such as Coriolis flowmeters, primarily because volumetric flowmeters don’t have the business approvals required for area applications.
Oil and fuel move meter choice

The primary components to think about in choosing an acceptable flowmeter include: fluid traits, flowmeter characteristics necessities, set up conditions, environmental circumstances, and cost.
In addition, the choice of flow meters cannot fully pursue high performance and high precision, which not solely will increase the acquisition value, but also increases the price of spare parts. It can be needed to consider the calibration and maintenance of circulate meters.
Accurate measurement and regulation of fluid move is the premise for ensuring the security of petrochemical production course of, bettering product quality and decreasing power consumption. Due to the complexity and variety of circulate measurement media, there isn’t any universal sort of flowmeter, no flowmeter can be utilized to any totally different circumstances of all kinds of media. Each kind of flowmeter has its advantages and limitations of measurement, totally different principles, completely different constructions, different features of the flowmeter in their respective relevant scope play a job. Therefore, the choice of flowmeter needs to observe the usual specs and selection ideas at the similar time comprehensive consideration of various factors affecting flow measurement.
Extended studying:
Solvent flow meter

Sewage flowmeter

Ultrasonic move meter working principle

Liquid move meter

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